Pure Substances and Mixtures Chapter Vocab

Atom – Are the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. – (“A A” like universe)
Element – is make up of one or more of the same kind of atom chemically combined – http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=X5pSnBLfGnI
Compound – is made up of different kind of atoms chemically combined. Compounds have different properties from the elements that make them up. – http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=8vLnn274r3c
Mixture – contains a variety of elements and compounds that are not chemically combined with each other. Mixtures can be separated by Physical changes. – http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=cq9gLT9H-vY
Pure Substances – is a substance that has definite physical and chemical properties such as appearance, melting point, and reactivity  (elements and compounds are pure substances)
Homogenous  – Substances are evenly spread throughout – (SAME SAME SAME)  http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=-PnPrlF7zgs
Heterogeneous – mixture is one that does not have a uniform composition (DIFFERENT DIFFERENT DIFFERENT)   – http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=mvx5Vb7wg3k
Suspension – are mixtures in which the particles of a material are spread throughout a liquid or gas but are too large to stay mixed without being stirred or shaken.  If a suspension is allowed to sit, the particles will settle out. – http://www.rit.edu/ntid/sciencesigns/ (Wiggly fingers mixture)
Solutions – one substance is dissolved into another substance. – http://www.rit.edu/ntid/sciencesigns/ (like Tea)
Colloids – falls between suspensions and solutions – the particles in a colloid are spread throughout a liquid or gas. (They are heterogeneous) – http://www.rit.edu/ntid/sciencesigns/ (MIXTURE + DIFFERENT many times)
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Review

FCAT is looming ever closer. I know, it’s months away. Doesn’t stop the instructional focus lessons that tap into already learned information.  Yesterday the students got a “labeling” sheet for Animal Cells and Plant Cells.  oof…Thankfully today was early release so I had some time to review all that and look up some terms using the ASL-STEM Forum.

The handout was from www.enchantedlearning.com so some of the words link back there for more in depth information.  I have put my gloss after the vocabulary definition.

Here is what I have so far:

The following is a glossary of plant cell anatomy terms.
amyloplast – an organelle in some plant cells that stores starch. Amyloplasts are found in starchy plants like tubers and fruits.
ATP – ATP is short for adenosine triphosphate; it is a high-energy molecule used for energy storage by organisms. In plant cells, ATP is produced in thecristae of mitochondria and chloroplasts.
cell membrane – the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell, but is inside the cell wall. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others. (fs CELL + SURFACE facing outwards like cover)
cell wall – a thick, rigid membrane that surrounds a plant cell. This layer of cellulose fiber gives the cell most of its support and structure. The cell wall also bonds with other cell walls to form the structure of the plant. (fs CELL+ COVER)
centrosome – (also called the “microtubule (fs M+T) organizing center”) a small body located near the nucleus – it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. Unlike the centrosomes in animal cells, plant cell centrosomes do not have centrioles.
chlorophyll – chlorophyll is a molecule that can use light energy from sunlight to turn water and carbon dioxide gas into sugar and oxygen (this process is called photosynthesis). Chlorophyll is magnesium based and is usually green. (COMPRESS + fsCHL)
chloroplast – an elongated or disc-shaped organelle containing chlorophyll. Photosynthesis (in which energy from sunlight is converted into chemical energy – food) takes place in the chloroplasts.
christae – (singular crista) the multiply-folded inner membrane of a cell’s mitochondrion that are finger-like projections. The walls of the cristae are the site of the cell’s energy production (it is where ATP is generated).
cytoplasm – the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body – (also called the golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. The golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for “export” from the cell.
granum – (plural grana) A stack of thylakoid disks within the chloroplast is called a granum.
mitochondrion – spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. (POWER using initialized M)
nuclear membrane – the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. (NUCLEUS + MEMBRANE surface outer NDH)
nucleolus – an organelle within the nucleus – it is where ribosomal RNA is produced.
nucleus – spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane
photosynthesis – a process in which plants convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into food energy (sugars and starches), oxygen and water.Chlorophyll or closely-related pigments (substances that color the plant) are essential to the photosynthetic process. (SUN + MAKE)
ribosome – small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum – (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell’s cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transport materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). (ROUGH + fs ER)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum – (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell’s cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transport materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body and membranes (SMOOTH + fs ER)
stroma – part of the chloroplasts in plant cells, located within the inner membrane of chloroplasts, between the grana.
thylakoid disk – thylakoid disks are disk-shaped membrane structures in chloroplasts that contain chlorophyll. Chloroplasts are made up of stacks of thylakoid disks; a stack of thylakoid disks is called a granum. Photosynthesis (the production of ATP molecules from sunlight) takes place on thylakoid disks.
vacuole – a large, membrane-bound space within a plant cell that is filled with fluid. Most plant cells have a single vacuole that takes up much of the cell. It helps maintain the shape of the cell.

The following is a glossary of animal cell terms:
cell membrane – the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.(fs CELL + SURFACE facing outwards like cover)
centrosome – (also called the “microtubule (fs M+T) organizing center”) a small body located near the nucleus – it has a dense center and radiating tubules. The centrosomes is where microtubules are made. During cell division (mitosis), the centrosome divides and the two parts move to opposite sides of the dividing cell. The centriole is the dense center of the centrosome.
cytoplasm – the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
Golgi body – (also called the Golgi apparatus or golgi complex) a flattened, layered, sac-like organelle that looks like a stack of pancakes and is located near the nucleus. It produces the membranes that surround the lysosomes. The Golgi body packages proteins and carbohydrates into membrane-bound vesicles for “export” from the cell.
lysosome – (also called cell vesicles) round organelles surrounded by a membrane and containing digestive enzymes. This is where the digestion of cell nutrients takes place.
mitochondrion – spherical to rod-shaped organelles with a double membrane. The inner membrane is infolded many times, forming a series of projections (called cristae). The mitochondrion converts the energy stored in glucose into ATP (adenosine triphosphate) for the cell. (POWER using initialized M)
nuclear membrane – the membrane that surrounds the nucleus. (NUCLEUS + MEMBRANE surface outer NDH)
nucleolus – an organelle within the nucleus – it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus.
nucleus – spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
ribosome – small organelles composed of RNA-rich cytoplasmic granules that are sites of protein synthesis.
rough endoplasmic reticulum – (rough ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted sacks that are located in the cell’s cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). Rough ER is covered with ribosomes that give it a rough appearance. Rough ER transports materials through the cell and produces proteins in sacks called cisternae (which are sent to the Golgi body, or inserted into the cell membrane). (ROUGH + fs ER)
smooth endoplasmic reticulum – (smooth ER) a vast system of interconnected, membranous, infolded and convoluted tubes that are located in the cell’s cytoplasm (the ER is continuous with the outer nuclear membrane). The space within the ER is called the ER lumen. Smooth ER transports materials through the cell. It contains enzymes and produces and digests lipids (fats) and membrane proteins; smooth ER buds off from rough ER, moving the newly-made proteins and lipids to the Golgi body, lysosomes, and membranes. (SMOOTH + fs ER)
vacuole – fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.

 

If you have any other helpful tips for this vocabulary, it would be appreciated.